02 Dec colonialism example ap human geography
Search » All » Geography » AP Human Geography ... Japan is in example but their are few states like it. London: Verso. In his essay "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism," sociologist Max Weber argued that the Protestant doctrine of predestination -- which held that God had already decided who would go to Heaven and who would go to Hell, and there was nothing an individual could do about it -- caused people to work hard and invest their savings in the economy rather than wasting them on Earthly pleasures. Please follow these steps to file a notice: A physical or electronic signature of the copyright owner or a person authorized to act on their behalf; This helps to solidify control of the colony. Created by. the "Pax Britannica" established in Africa (Watts 1986). Kobayashi, Audrey. As discussed earlier, the world economy goes through cyclical ups and downs. Mercantilism was eventually replaced by free-market capitalism as the dominant economic theory in Europe and much of the world. If there was nothing but ocean between Europe and China, the sailing ships available in Europe at the time could not make the voyage. 3. Yet in their second assault, they were successful. Diffusion is the spreading of culture from one area to another. The Treaty of Tordesillas was signed between the empires of Spain and Portugal in 1494. Cieza de Leon, Pedro. During this contraction phase, regions refocus on local subsistence and trade declines. Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. ensuring Germany would respect the territorial sovereignty of France and Belgium in western Europe and Africa, dividing the continent of Africa among the various European imperial powers without an outbreak of war between those powers, establishing trading ports in Japan and China for the European imperial powers, preventing German attempts at achieving hegemonic control over the European continent, organizing a combined western European resistance against the Ottoman and Russian Empires. But the presence of massive European demand for slaves greatly shaped Africans' incentives. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. on or linked-to by the Website infringes your copyright, you should consider first contacting an attorney. It was not uncommon for tribes to lose 90% or more of their members. But the underlying tensions did not go away, and they erupted once the colonizer was pushed out -- as we can see today in Nigeria (Comfort 2002) and Kenya (Daily Nation 2010). China soon began to suffer some of the same problems as India, as its economic activity came to serve European wealth and systems to provide for people in the event of a catastrophe like a drought weakened. either the copyright owner or a person authorized to act on their behalf. or more of your copyrights, please notify us by providing a written notice (“Infringement Notice”) containing When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. This was done uncooperatively though the so-called “Scramble for Africa” and cooperatively with the Berlin Conference in 1884-1885. This is a simple matter of evolutionary biology. Marks the beginning of the modern state system Treaty between princes of the states making up the Holy Roman Empire Ended destructive religious war –The Thirty Year War Recognized the rights of rulers within defined 2020 AP Test Changes Due to COVID-19. Webers theory fails to account for the greater economic dynamism of Asia during much of the period after the Protestant reformation or the recent economic success of Catholic (Spain, Ireland) and Confucian (Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore) societies. and hopefully the two blogs will match up. 2007. For any given disease, human genetic variation will produce people with a variety of levels of susceptibility to the disease. European trade with Asia was further hampered by a lack of easy trade routes to the East. Journal of World History 16 (4): 411-465. My Geography teacher has started an experiment which involves me writing about what I have learnt in my lessons and about any geographical news that interests me. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 2002. Infringement Notice, it will make a good faith attempt to contact the party that made such content available by Europeans did not colonize the interior of Africa during this period (though they would do so later, after the end of the trans-Atlantic slave trade). 6. The full slideshow can be purchased at http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Store/Mr-Eil… But as we learned in an earlier chapter, race is not a biologically valid concept when applied to people. The Richter Scale of Cultural Development was from the television show Star Trek. Mamdani, Mahmood. One of the perennial questions in the social sciences is to explain "the rise of the West." Educated people in Europe had known the world was round since the ancient Greeks proved it around 200 BCE. Thus, if you are not sure content located As a result of the vagaries of biogeography, the Afro-Eurasian landmass contained a number of suitable domesticable species. Here, the European rulers relied heavily on slaves brought from Africa. A disease that is too slow to infect new victims will disappear, as everyone who has it dies or gets better without passing it on to new victims. Epidemics will tend to kill the people who are most susceptible, preventing them from passing on their genes. 1997. Today, geographers hold that one critical piece of the puzzle of the rise of the West is colonialism. Humans caught these diseases by domesticating animals like cattle, sheep, and chickens. Examples of colonialism include the ancient Greek colonization of Sicily, the Spanish colonization of South America, the Viking colonization of Normandy and the British colonization of Australia. Blaut, J. M. 1989. So as the American colonies began to gain their independence, European colonial efforts shifted to the east (Figure 5). Geography, empire, and environmental determinism. Daily Nation, April 2. Colonizing powers brought with them a conviction that race is a biologically real phenomenon, and so they interpreted many differences in culture or economic way of life among colonized peoples as racial differences. One major commodity that China did demand from the outside world was precious metals, particularly silver (Frank 1998). Beaujard, Philippe. A disease that infects too quickly will soon find itself without any new victims because everyone in the population is either dead or healed. This continuation of unequal economic relationships despite an end to formal political control is called neo-colonialism. Political Geography. Other natural resources and agricultural products were important as well (Pomeranz 2000). This was in part triggered by the Black Plague. Most Greek gods and goddesses are representations of the active physical elements that made up the local landscape. But even where land was left in native hands, colonial rulers found ways to change their economic calculus. Fun fact: the English language is named for the Angles, an ethnic group who (along with the Saxons) were ancestors of the English people. During the colonial era, Europeans came to believe that the people of an entire continent were fit only to work at the behest of superior types of humans (Sundberg 2008). Voyages 2009. Then click 'Next Question' to answer the next question. The construction of geographical knowledge -- racialization, spatialization. The Scramble for Africa. The unreliability of India's climate had led native princes to develop systems to accumulate and store food during good years, and redistribute that food in bad ones. Key Concepts: Terms in this set (58) Antecedent Boundary. Looking at Figure 1, we know that certain parts of our world have been at the forefront of economic growth, becoming the core of the capitalist world economy. The correct answer is the opposite of what is typically expected in colonialism. Much of the trade within Asia was carried on by Arab and Chinese ships, and caravans through Central Asia. Cultural Geography Historic Cultures The African continent has a unique place in human history. The Berlin Conference was primarily concerned with __________. Rather, the system is typically organized so that the bulk of the profits accrue to one area of the world, called the core. The term Neo-colonialism is used to refer to __________. Territory is not clearly defined – boundaries were not set or recognized. In Peru, Francisco Pizarro defeated the Incas by taking advantage of a civil war that broke out when a disease (probably smallpox as well) killed the emperor Huayna Capac and his designated heir, Ninan Cuyochi. The types include, nations, states, nation-states, multinational states, multistate nations, and autonomous regions. Europe had benefited from being connected to the large Afro-Eurasian landmass, giving it access to the technological ingenuity of a large population of people, and creating competition that drove those people to devise new technologies for projecting power over new lands. The population of the Americas, on the other hand, was smaller, less densely settled, and less tightly linked into long-distance trade. Europe's first priority in establishing American colonies was to produce things that they could sell to China and India. 5 Shapes of Countries. Cultural Geography Historic Cultures Indigenous cultures shaped, and were shaped by, the geography of Australia and Oceania. Many of the most-spoken languages around the world are European, with the number of speakers vastly outweighing the population of that language's country of origin. the brand of aggressive, militaristic colonialism that emerged in the second-half of the nineteenth century, the spread and globalization of western, particularly American, culture, the continued economic dependence of colonies on their former occupiers, the dependence of many of the world’s poorest countries on the United States of America for food and aid. London: Longman. The first was technological superiority (Diamond 1997). Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250-1350. The implication of the term is that, although the colonial powers no longer exert political or militaristic control over the former colonies, they are still able to control the population of these countries to variable degrees through economic and cultural processes. But Europe's advantages in military technology alone would have been insufficient to guarantee victory. The Berlin Conference was convened in 1884 with the intention of dividing up the continent of Africa among the various European imperial powers (Great Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, and Italy). mgettenberg. London: Routledge. Match. Blaut, J. M. 1993. Despite having achieved independence half a century ago the economy of Algeria remains closely tied to the economy of France. The formation of some of the early trans-regional economic linkages can be dated to as early as 3000 BCE, when the Sumerians living in what is now Iraq traded with Egypt and the Harappan civilization in what is now Pakistan (Frank and Gills 1992). Britain and other powers extracted tax breaks and special deals as well as trade monopolies over certain regions. “Mercantilism” was the prevailing economic theory during the first few centuries of European expansion and colonialism. Example Questions . In his first assault on the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan, Hernán Cortéz's forces -- armed with guns, swords, steel armor, and war horses -- were defeated by the Aztecs. Which of these European imperial powers is not correctly matched with an African territory it received in the Berlin Conference or conquered during the Scramble for Africa? PLAY. Colonialism: Colonialism refers to the act of a group of people from one nation going to other parts of the world and forming settlements. Numerous colonies still exist today -- for example, the US controls places such as Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands, and some native activists argue that Hawaii is more colony than state. International Trade Approach & Self Sufficient Approach. This was most notable during the Cold War between the US and USSR. The Dragon's Gift: The Real Story of China in Africa. Language ex³nc³on, both currently and throughout history, has been a major concern for cultural geographers, linguists, anthropologists, and other academics. In the 1950s, part of a wider global movement away from imperialism and political colonization, the countries that made up Indochina gained their independence. 2. Start studying Colonialism (APHG Unit 3). Pre-colonial economies in many areas were oriented toward production for local subsistence. A description of the nature and exact location of the content that you claim to infringe your copyright, in \ The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. Weber, Max. To gain control over the world economy, Europe had to take out its competition. •Example: people may choose to move because of a major problem that almost forces them to move •Example: people may feel they will eventually be forced to move, so they voluntarily move . This theory too has been discredited, as no evidence exists to support it. Rather, the tribe had been devastated by a disease epidemic. Give a real world example for each way. Krech, S. 1999. Colonizing powers used a variety of techniques to shift economic activity toward cash cropping and resource extraction (e.g. 2009. Colonizing powers brought with them worldviews that said that Europeans were culturally, racially, and morally superior. Hold on to your hats! 1553. 1. New York: Guilford Press. Mercantilism is best defined as __________. For example, English farming systems involving wheat, peas, and cattle could be recreated in the northeastern US with little effort. Human Development Index. Geographies of Postcolonialism is a very accessible introduction to colonialism, post-colonialism and postcolonial geographies. But why those countries instead of others? The Rostow model is wrong because colonialism disrupts the natural pattern of industrialization. Mahan's Sea Power Theory . So the colonial rulers brought about two major migration streams: settlers from Europe, and slaves from Africa. Sovereignty is the authority of a state to govern itself. Each downswing is an opportunity for the system to be reorganized as different powers seize the advantage. Under British rule, these programs were eliminated. John Byrne, Leigh Glover, and Cecilia Martinez, 39-70. In particular, Europeans brought with them steel (known since antiquity but greatly improved by Indian smiths), and guns (invented by the Chinese). Indochina, a region that now includes the modern-day countries of Vietnam and Cambodia, was ruled by which of these Empires until the decolonization period that followed World War II? Colonialism Essay Directions Hearth Writing Assessment Hearth Writing Assessment (limit 2 pages or 900 words [insert at end of paper]) Describe how your cultural hearth has been affected politically, and/or economically, and/or culturally because of colonialism or imperialism. But eventually, the system becomes too rigid and overexploits its resources, and there is a downswing (Chew 2001). an economic theory that emphasizes favorable balance of trade and the accumulation of precious metals, a political theory that emphasizes personal liberty and autonomy, but also competition and antagonism, an economic theory that emphasizes freedom from government intervention, a political theory that emphasizes cooperation and communalism and the suppression of individuality. Acquisition of deadly diseases from animals continues today, with recent concerns over bird flu and swine flu. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. It was Europe that stumbled upon them simply because Europe was located much closer to the Americas than China or India were. In many cases, that was British consumers rather than Indian ones. A review on the different types of diffusion with review questions. Only a few of today's countries were never ruled by a European or neo-European power, and even those came under heavy European influence in their internal affairs and ability to participate in the world market. Second, many people native to the colonies internalized the colonizer's ideologies. Please be advised that you will be liable for damages (including costs and attorneys’ fees) if you materially It depopulated significant swaths of land, which then reverted to disease-infested swamps. This ideology brought two types of subordination to colonized peoples. We can begin to trace the causes of "the rise of the West" in the 1200s. First was the scale. Smallpox derives from cowpox, measles from rinderpest, and human influenza from related diseases of a variety of livestock. In any widespread economic system, a division into a core, semiperiphery, and periphery can emerge. 4. Three key factors explain why European diseases were so devastating to Native Americans, whereas with the exception of syphilis, no American diseases ever became a problem for Europeans: domestic animals, population size, and time (Dobson and Carper 1994). If you've found an issue with this question, please let us know. Today there is fear among some political players that China's rapid economic growth is giving them the means to compete with the US, Japan, and Europe in manipulating poorer countries (Brautigam 2010). a This form of economic control over a former colony is known as “Neo-colonialism.”. This meant that they had a lot of land to give away, but were at a distinct military disadvantage against inland tribes who had not been hit so hard, and thus they wanted allies. We're familiar with short-term economic ups and downs, which last perhaps a few years at a time. Over time, only the genes conferring high resistance to the disease will be left. But unfortunately for China, there are few silver mines in its territory. Among the diseases causing significant epidemics were "smallpox, chickenpox, influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, yellow fever, common cold, pneumonia, scarlet fever, whooping cough, diphtheria, typhus, dysentery, cholera, bubonic plague, malaria, and amoebic dysentery" (Krech 1999). An identification of the copyright claimed to have been infringed; Europe was attracted by the riches of Asia, but had few products that it could trade for Asian goods. Colonialism is a process by which a country takes over new land, and reorganizes that land's economy to benefit the colonizing power, rather than to benefit the residents of the colony. While they were set up as colonies, the wholesale transfer of the European way of life to these areas enabled them to become rivals to the European homelands, and even, in the case of the US, capture the status of global economic core. Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. In what is now Massachusetts, the generosity of the Wampanoags to the arriving Pilgrims was not merely a matter of altruism. Algeria was once a major colony of France and was under French control until the 1960s. an Typically, there is a mass migration of people from the colonizing country into the colony. Kenya: Post-election violence not spontaneous. But European settlement was particularly heavy in areas that have come to be known as neo-Europes -- Canada, the US, Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay in the Americas, as well as South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. The pre-European population of the Americas is estimated to have been somewhere in the range of 40 to 80 million, but the population was reduced to only 6 million by 1650 (Denevan 1992). AP Human Geography: Political Geography Vocabulary. 1904. C. Identify and explain TWO examples that show how globalization is contributing to English becoming the world’s lingua franca. Send your complaint to our designated agent at: Charles Cohn It is much easier for a disease to hit this sweet spot in a large, dense population. C. Give two examples of how the core-periphery concept can be applied below the national scale. It draws on a comprehensıve range of sources in outlining the linkages between knowledge, power and representation of the colonial image. Instead, food was distributed by the international market, flowing to whoever could pay the most for it. On the political front, countries in the European/neo-European core used their greater power to interfere with the affairs of ex-colonies around the world. Diamond, Jared M. 1997. Between 1492 and 1900, over 10 million men and women were taken from Africa to the Americas (Voyages 2009). As historian Janet Abu-Lughod put it, "the 'fall of the East' preceded the 'Rise of the West'" (Abu-Lughod 1989). The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Making of the Modern World Economy. Berkeley: University of California Press. The Americas, on the other hand, produced only three domesticated animals -- turkeys, llamas and alpacas, and guinea pigs (Native Americans also had dogs, which were brought from Asia). Crosby, Alfred W. 1986. Three Types of Empires. These raw materials fed the manufacturers of Europe, easing resource constraints that had grown as Europe's economy expanded. The solution was simple: Britain banned India from exporting textiles. 2010. Rights verus rites: when it comes to the lives of women around the globe, do local traditions ever trump human rights? Included a large amount of ethnic and cultural groups Why are Empires not States? The Americas, on the other hand, had huge untapped deposits of silver. These continents proved far more lucrative for Europe than any trade route. Losing these workers made Africa more dependent on European goods and less able to produce for itself. One important synthesis of the way these spatial arrangements work is World Systems Theory. In the past, slaves had been captives from war or children sold off by impoverished parents. Nunn, N., and L. Wantchekon. (Unfortunately for the Wampanoags' strategic calculations, the English soon turned against all of New England's native people). Start studying Ap Human Geography Unit 4. The Ecological Indian: Myth and History. During the growth phase, economic activity picks up, populations rise, and the volume of trade between regions increases. The slave trade exacerbated conflicts among kingdoms and tribes in Africa. As late as 1793, the Chinese Emperor Ch'ien Lung bragged to King George III of England: "I set no value on objects strange and ingenious and have no use for your country's manufactures" (Frank 1998). Describe how historically the political geography of colonialism affected indigenous languages. Walnut Creek: Altamira Press. The pristine myth: the landscape of the Americas in 1492. And the hemisphere-wide economic system that had emerged connected Europe into a huge total population of people. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Dobson, Andrew P., and E. Robin Carper. Chamberlain, Muriel E. 1999. Vocabulary from the Advanced Placement course of Human Geography regarding political geography . As trade routes began to grow again, European rulers and merchants committed themselves to capturing more of the trade surplus -- to becoming less of a semiperiphery and more of a core part of the world economic system. Colonial rulers charged native people taxes that must be paid in cash -- in contrast to native rulers, who had accepted payment in grain, hides, or other products. The end of formal colonialism is usually dated to the mid-1800s for the Western Hemisphere, and the mid-1900s for the Eastern. The plague originated with rats from central Asia. Imperialism. This is the regularly scheduled date for the AP Human Geography Exam. Explain the degree to which globalization can explain the loss of indigenous languages in Africa since the 1970s. What Columbus found, of course was that there were two whole continents lying west of Europe and east of China. Washington, DC: National Bureau of Economic Research. Origins of the Modern World System [link]. Economic historians calculate that the emergence of Europe as the core of the world economy occurred relatively late in history -- possibly as late as 1850. 2010. Given this history, it is not surprising that the entitlement theory of famine was developed by Amartya Sen, an Indian. Explain how colonialism a±ected global paTerns of language and religion using speci²c examples to support your argument. ReOrient: Global Economy in the Asian Age. The colony is usually the recipient of colonists from the colonizing country, not the other way around. Indochina, often called French Indochina, was a colonial possession of the French Empire until the decolonization period that followed World War II. Conquest and colonization of the Americas provided Europe with a huge boost in resources and markets that enabled it to hitch a ride on the Asian train and eventually take over that train. Science & Society 53 (3): 260-296. Dependency Theory. New international division of labor. Amnesty Magazine. But they also lose potential mineral wealth, and have to deal with pollution from the mine. as 2. For example, researcher… 1998. Advanced Placement Human Geography (also known as AP Human Geo, AP Geography, APHG, AP HuGe, AP HuG, AP Human, or HGAP) is an Advanced Placement social studies course that studies human geography.The test is administered by College Board.. 1992. Ethnic groups that were hardest-hit by the slave trade exhibit lower trust and poorer economic success than their neighbors who were less devastated by slavery (Nunn and Wantchekon 2009). Most of the devastating epidemic diseases are derived from diseases common to herd animals. Silent Violence: Food, Famine and Peasantry in Northern Nigeria. Home Embed All AP Human Geography Resources . Transportation of which of the following was NOT part of the Atlantic Triangular Trade of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries between the Americas (American colonies and the Caribbean), Europe, and Africa? The taxes were often timed to force native producers to sell their crops at times of the year when markets were glutted and thus prices were low. The effects of four centuries of slave trade on Africa are still apparent, a mere century and a half after its end. Colonialism and the rise of capitalism. My Geography teacher is also going to write a blog about what she teaches me (and therefore what I should have learnt!) Davis, Mike. AP Human Geography Help » Political Organization of Space » Evolution … Second, the trans-Atlantic slave trade was highly racialized. And it undermined African economies. China's economy ran on a silver standard, and so economic growth created an enormous hunger for silver. the 2003. 2008. Economic activity in ex-colonies continued to be funded by investors in the former colonizer, and products were bought and sold by companies based in the former colonizer (Davis 2001). We will discuss environmental determinism in detail later. In addition to the violence of the conquest itself, a variety of consequences were felt by colonized societies. Numerous colonies still exist today -- for example, the US controls places such as Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands, and some native activists argue that Hawaii is more colony than state. Post-Colonialism and Neo-Colonialism [link]. The University of Texas at Dallas, Bachelor in Arts, International Political Economy. Often, the governing country uses the colony for its resources, taking what is useful without regard to the original inhabitants. Colonial Riches and the Asian Trade [link]. Over time, these trans-regional economic linkages have spread farther and grown stronger, leading eventually to our modern globe-spanning economy. France is currently by far the biggest trading partner of Algeria, this is most accurately described as __________. By the end of the colonial era, the world economy had been remade to place Europe and the neo-Europes in a dominant position. Timber and other forest products like turpentine were also important. Other portions of the system, called the periphery, experience a loss of wealth due to their participation in the system. In the United States, for example, government- and church-run boarding schools for Native American children prohibited them from speaking their native language, practicing their native religion, or learning traditional native ways of making a living (e.g. "The West" is a vague term roughly corresponding with the developed world or global North, excluding Asian countries such as Japan and South Korea. hunting or native forms of agriculture) (Smith 2007). Chase-Dunn, Christopher, and Thomas D. Hall. So as Europeans pushed into the heart of the Americas, they found tribes already devastated by disease and "wilderness" that had only recently been abandoned. 5. Soul wound: the legacy of Native American schools. As geographers, we are interested in the way that the spatial arrangement of societies may influence the development of economic systems. During the last few decades of the nineteenth century, and the early twentieth century, the European imperial powers carved the continent of Africa among themselves. (Clear inference of communication barriers being overcome.) In this article, we'll go through the structure of the free-response section, some helpful tips for answering AP Human Geography FRQs, examples of what these free-response questions look like, and a few places where you can find the best practice materials. The slave trade and the origins of mistrust in Africa, Soul wound: the legacy of Native American schools, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. The Domino Theory. Many countries bear crushing debt burdens which are owed to ex-colonizer countries, forcing them to continue producing for the world market and making them vulnerable to demands from international creditors. This means that the profits from selling the mine's products will go to investors in those regions. While Asians had little interest in Europe's poorer-quality textiles, ceramics, etc., settlers in European colonies had little choice but to buy them. The course content outlined below is organized into commonly taught units of study that provide one possible sequence for the course. In China, the colonizing impact was less direct, as no European power ever directly ruled China. The distinguishing feature of the neo-Europes is the similarity of their climates to that of Europe. Those that fell on the Portuguese side of this arbitrary line now live in Brazil and continue to speak Portuguese; those that fell on the Spanish side live in the rest of South America and continue to speak Spanish. The volcanoes of Lemnos, an island in the Mediterranean, and Mount Etna, on the island of Sicily, were believed to be the forges of Hephaestus, the Greek god of fire. 2005. One of the reasons that Europe had remained in the semiperiphery of the world economy before 1492 was that there was little that Europe could produce that China and India wanted. … OR. India and China were the dominant economic powers in this system. It is one of the most significant events during the age of imperialism (circa 1870-1914). 2001. 101 S. Hanley Rd, Suite 300 Test. AP Human Geography Exam. During the two centuries of British rule in India, India's economy was restructured to benefit Britain (Davis 2001). Australia and Oceania’s physical geography, environment and resources, and human geography can be considered separately. Structure of contemporary political map. The world economy has a three-tier structure. And if the white race is not biologically distinct from other races, then we cant explain the economic growth of Europe on the basis of biological characteristics. Although the world has multiple states, almost everything takes place within the context of the world economy. Thus, the diseases that people in Afro-Eurasia got from their livestock could easily find new victims in the local area, and pass on to new areas when the local epidemic's peak passed. Geographical Review 82 (2): 143-153. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. European trade goods, particularly guns, quickly became necessities. This re-cutting of the colonized territory stuck groups long at odds with each other together into the same political unit. discuss environmental determinism in detail later, Kenya: Post-election violence not spontaneous. In one sense, colonization reduced conflict among colonized populations, as the colonizer's military power imposed peace, e.g. La Crónica del Perú. Varsity Tutors. Cultural diffusion is about the spreading of culture over time. your copyright is not authorized by law, or by the copyright owner or such owner’s agent; (b) that all of the Techniques ranging from aid packages with strings attached, to direct military intervention, were used to install friendly regimes, with little regard to the consequences for the prosperity of the people in the countries in question (Faber 2002). The end of formal colonialism is usually dated to the mid-1800s for the Western Hemisphere, and the mid-1900s for the Eastern. means of the most recent email address, if any, provided by such party to Varsity Tutors. Lacking access to colonies put a strain on China's production. 1. Throughout the Americas, European diseases wiped out countless native people. Federal and Unitary States. First, it led to efforts by colonizers to wipe out or prevent the practice of native cultural traditions. For example, imagine what happens when a mining company opens a new mine in Papua New Guinea. Yet at the same time, the increased economic activity generated by the influx of American silver and other resources, as well as a population boom fueled by new American crops like potatoes and maize, was causing the economies of China and India -- the old cores -- to expand too (Frank 1998). Emory University. Of these countries, all are correctly labeled except Mozambique and Great Britain. A statement by you: (a) that you believe in good faith that the use of the content that you claim to infringe Colonialism works to funnel wealth back to the colonizer while inhibiting the development of the colony. European powers moved quickly to establish plantations in the Caribbean and nearby parts of the mainland to grow sugar, tobacco, and cotton, among other products. Self-determination is the process by which a country determines its own statehood and forms its own allegiances and governments. Each of these concessions was then exploited to further tighten Europe's grip on the Chinese economy. 2. Your teacher may choose to organize the course content differently based on local priorities and preferences. The work of capturing slaves and bringing them to the European trading ports was done by other Africans. Here's another fun fact: the Angles never lived in Hong Kong. Note how this resembles the recent spike in Mexican tortilla prices in response to US ethanol demand. Tucson: University of Arizona Press. The world economy has one market and a global division of labor. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Large areas of the world have been integrated into single economic systems for a long period of time. It spread quickly along trade routes throughout the Eastern Hemisphere, devastating populations and thereby disrupting economies. St. Louis, MO 63105. This video goes over everything you need to know about the different types of diffusion. The slave trade and the origins of mistrust in Africa. Abu-Lughod, Janet L. 1989. Asian manufacturing was much more productive than that of Europe. 1993. Extracting resources from the Americas got Europe into the economic game, making it more competitive and richer, and giving it the ability to become an important middleman in intra-Asian trade as well as trading directly for Asian goods. With the help of the community we can continue to New York: W.W. Norton and Co. Faber, Daniel 2002. Infectious diseases and human population history. Describe three political or cultural consequences of superimposed boundaries in Africa. If they succeeded in their economic endeavors, people would take that as proof that they were favored by God and thus likely to be among those predestined for Heaven (Weber 1904). But Britain's emerging industrial economy was also focused (among other things) on textile manufacture. 4 Diagnostic Tests 225 Practice Tests Question of the Day Flashcards Learn by Concept. Environment 37 (7): 3-5, 42-43. In the 1300s, this world system experienced a decline (Abu-Lughod 1989). Heartland and Rimland Theory. One long-popular theory was race: Europeans, and their descendants elsewhere in the world, were said to be simply more intelligent and harder-working (Kobayashi 2003). India fell first. Pomeranz, K. 2000. The colonizers then favored the "higher" races, placing them in positions of power. Start studying AP Human Geography Unit 4 (Political Human Geography- Imperialism | Colonialism | Decolonization) Review. It effectively divided the continent of South America between a Spanish-controlled empire and a Portuguese-controlled empire. Slave traders naturally preferred able-bodied young men and women, who were the productive backbone of pre-slave-trade African economies. Thus, millennia of living with various diseases had turned them into childhood nuisances but not terrible plagues for Europeans. Colonized societies were forcibly incorporated into the emerging global capitalist economy, typically on bad terms. Describe the concept of a superimposed boundary. On the economic front, political independence did little for countries still dependent on a global economic system in which the shots were called and the profits made in London, Paris, or New York. Colonialism also created ideological subordination. Meanwhile, Papua New Guinea may receive a few low-paying jobs. Those who saw the harm in this internalization then reacted by simply flipping to the other side and rejecting anything that allegedly carried the taint of the colonizer. STUDY. In Rwanda, for example, the sharp (and allegedly racial) divide between Hutus and Tutsis, and the privileging of the Tutsis that formed the basis of Hutu resentment, were created by the Germans and Belgians during their rule (Mamdani 2001). improve our educational resources. A boundary that was drawn across an area prior to the area becoming substantially … Gravity. Track your scores, create tests, and take your learning to the next level! The pattern would be repeated throughout the Americas. Rocheleau, D. 1995. More on Machakos. The real disagreement was over how big the earth was. In order to explain how "the West" became the core of our current world economic system, we have to go back to a time when it wasn't. The semiperiphery is composed of areas in between the core and periphery. The Indian Ocean in Eurasian and African world-systems before the Sixteenth Century. India's major commodity export for a long time had been textiles, produced in rural shops all through the region. Society and Natural Resources 21 (7): 569-582. sufficient detail to permit Varsity Tutors to find and positively identify that content; for example we require 1994. At least a few Europeans settled in every colony, in order to run its affairs and direct the production of wealth for the ruler. Widely believed to be the “cradle of humankind,” Africa is the only continent with fossil evidence of human beings (Homo sapiens) and their ancestors through each key stage of their evolution. Explanation: “Environmental determinism” is a theory of cultural geography that states that cultural traditions, and the differences between various cultures, are informed by environmental concerns.This had racial connotations during the age of European colonialism. In the Americas, lands were cut up into haciendas run by Spanish or Portuguese masters, with poor and native people having little option but to work for the masters (even if they werent formally enslaved). Seville. In practice this meant stripping the colonies of their raw resources, bringing them back to Europe, and either storing them or using them in manufacturing. Learn. We learned in an earlier chapter that the idea of race, in the sense of biologically distinct sub-species of humans, was created during the colonial era to justify the social organization of the colonies. Spell. The Greeks had calculated a relatively accurate figure -- 39,690 km around, as compared to an actual measurement of 40,008 km. CREATE AN ACCOUNT Create Tests & Flashcards. Large economic systems go through boom and bust phases on a long historical time scale. The trade did not feature the transportation of tobacco from Europe to the Americas. A ruler who acquired guns from the Europeans in exchange for slaves was at a political and military advantage vis-a-vis neighbors who did not participate in the slave trade. The Atlantic Triangular Trade of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries featured the transportation of trinkets from Europe to Africa, slaves from Africa to the Caribbean, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and rum from New England to Europe. Rights verus rites: when it comes to the lives of women around the globe, do local traditions ever trump human rights? Basic and Non-Basic Industries. © 2007-2020 All Rights Reserved, The term Neo-colonialism is used to refer to, France is currently by far the biggest trading partner of Algeria, this is most accurately described as, The Treaty of Tordesillas primarily concerns the division of, The Berlin Conference was primarily concerned with, SAT Courses & Classes in San Francisco-Bay Area. Since Papua New Guinea is so poor, they lack the power to say no to the foreign mining company, or to mine the minerals themselves. This is basically how Europe, boosted by the products of its American colonies and skilled in colonial domination by its practice there, brought down China and India. The term “Neo-colonialism” has emerged in recent years to refer to the continued economic dependence of colonies on their former occupiers. The World System: Five Hundred or Five Thousand Years? This is a sample of Part one of my AP Human Geography: Unit 4 slideshow. Conquest, De-population, and Re-population [link]. Nevertheless, European powers were able to use their increasing control over world trade to force China into making trade concessions favorable to Europe (Davis 2001). For a disease to persist in a population, it needs to strike a balance between being too virulent and not virulent enough (Dobson and Carper 1994). But the granting of formal independence did not necessarily end the economic … Ecological Imperialism: The Biological Expansion of Europe, 900-1900. A revolution in environmental justice and sustainable development: the political ecology of Nicaragua. They give an overview of each free-response question and of how students performed on the question, including typical … There are many types of cultural diffusion, and in this guide we will go over the types and provide examples. Sundberg, J. Britain also established a free-market doctrine that undercut India's social support programs (Davis 2001). It was conquered by the Japanese during the war but returned to France following the conclusion of the war. The Colonizer's Model of the World: Geographical Diffusionism and Eurocentric History. Mozambique was under the control of Portugal. Which of the following is not an issue typically associated with colonialism? misrepresent that a product or activity is infringing your copyrights. Joni Adamson, Mei Mei Evans, and Rachel Stein, 229-246. Chew, Sing C. 2001. KEY QUESTION #2: WHY DO PEOPLE MIGRATE? The attempt by one country to impose political control over another country is called __________. Raiding neighboring villages or even selling off members of your own tribe served as insurance against becoming a victim of the slave trade yourself -- sell them before they sell you (Nunn and Wantchekon 2009). 3. Consider the impact of colonialism on the world’s cultural geography. Whilst Algeria accounts for a little over one-percent of French trade (making it relatively insignificant to France), France accounts for a quarter of Algerian trade (making it extremely significant to Algeria). But Columbus was convinced that the Earth was smaller than that, and therefore that he could sail all the way to China (Blaut 1989). The Treaty of Tordesillas primarily concerns the division of __________ between two colonial powers. But economic historians have also identified long-lasting waves of economic growth and decline, lasting several hundred years. None of these are the sort of herd animals that commonly pass diseases to humans (Diamond 1997). BioScience 46 (2): 115-126. 2. Semiperipheral areas often aspire to become the core, in order to reap the rewards of long-distance trade. This often leads to mistreatment of the original inhabitants, degradation of the local environment, and introduction of previously unknown diseases. The only way to acquire cash was to grow crops that could be sold to colonial trading monopolies, or to work as a laborer in colonial mines or other jobs. Wallerstein's World System Theory. Europe had a breakthrough in 1492 with the voyage of Christopher Columbus (Blaut 1993). We can think of World Systems Theory as making several core propositions (Frank 1998, Chase-Dunn and Hall 1997): 1. An economic recession in the mid-1700s created an opportunity for the British East India company to move in and take over, uniting the various empires and principalities into a colony encompassing what are now the nations of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh (Frank 1998). link to the specific question (not just the name of the question) that contains the content and a description of The geography and climate of the Mediterranean region, for example, directly influenced Greek mythology. Independent states are the building blocks of the of world political map. A mere boost to Europe's fortunes was not enough to turn Europe into the core of the world economy. Explain how indigenous languages have been under threat from primary economic activities in the Americas since the 1970s. Finally, the American colonies provided a captive market for European manufactured goods (Blaut 1993). Rise and Demise: Comparing World-Systems. Part A: 1 point total. Farmers living in close proximity to their livestock gave ample time for the bacteria and viruses to jump the species barrier. University of Washington-Seattle Campus... University of South Florida-Main Campus, Current Undergrad, International Studies. The important idea here is that long-distance trade is not carried on for the equal benefit of all parties. Your Infringement Notice may be forwarded to the party that made the content available or to third parties such Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Such activities have continued since the fall of the USSR. (Note that contrary to popular myth, the Chinese did not use gunpowder solely for fireworks -- indeed, one would have to be rather dense to invent something that makes a dramatic explosion, and not figure out that you could use it to kill someone!) Moreover, the net effect of colonization in some cases was to exacerbate ethnic tensions. AP Human Geography: Exam Prep Final Free Practice Test Instructions Choose your answer to the question and click 'Continue' to see how you did. Struggle in Ogoniland: Ken Saro-Wiwa and the cultural politics of environmental justice. A related theory was environmental determinism. Examples of Empires. 2001. Introduction of diseases into "virgin" territory, Mass migration of colonized peoples into the colonizing country. NBER Working Paper 14783. Denevan, William M. 1992. Goldberg, Michelle. At this time, most of the Eastern Hemisphere -- from Britain to Japan, and from Russia to Zimbabwe -- was connected in one large trade network (Abu-Lughod 1989), shown in Figure 2. But the trans-Atlantic slave trade differed in several crucial ways. One mechanism was taxation (Watts 1983). Frank, Andre Gunder. Eventually, the stage is set for a renewal of growth. 2009. But the granting of formal independence did not necessarily end the economic and political control that the core held over the periphery. Long-distance trade fell off as people focused on maintaining their own local livelihoods. But by the late 1400s, the world economy was on its way back. Prior to that, other regions of the world, specifically China and India, could be considered the core (Frank 1998). Brautigam, Deborah. Watts, M. 1983. information contained in your Infringement Notice is accurate, and (c) under penalty of perjury, that you are Initial attempts to use Native American labor were disappointing, as so many of them had died of diseases. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. information described below to the designated agent listed below. AP Human Geography Unit 3 FRQs 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. It emphasized maintaining a favorable balance of trade and the accumulation of precious metals. Write. Varsity Tutors LLC In Africa, it was common for the best and most fertile lands to be seized by British colonists, forcing native Africans to crowd into poorer lands (Rocheleau 1995). The world's major mining companies are headquartered in places like North America and Europe. The East India Company ruled the colony as a corporate asset for 100 years, until the British government took over and ran the colony for another 100 years. Rather, tobacco was transported from the Americas, particularly from the American colonies, to Europe. Native Americans, on the other hand, had never had an opportunity to evolve resistance to diseases like smallpox or measles, and so they were killed in huge numbers. This college-level course introduces students to the systematic study of patterns and processes that have shaped human understanding, use, and … World Ecological Degradation: Accumulation, Urbanization, and Deforestation 3000 B.C.-A.D. 2000. In Environmental Justice: Discourses in International Political Economy, eds. AP Human Geography : Colonialism & Imperialism Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Human Geography. Colonialism involves a powerful nation sending settlers to permanently live in another land under the originating nation's control. B. Colonization also imposed new boundaries on colonized lands. A huge variety of theories have been proposed to explain why certain countries have come to dominate the world economy. They told themselves it was their task to bring civilization to the backwards peoples of the world -- a task labeled "the white man's burden" by British author Rudyard Kipling. Your name, address, telephone number and email address; and This made it easy for the package of plants and animals that support the European way of life to be transferred to the new colonies (Crosby 1986). And disease spread quicker than European explorers and conquerors. 2014 AP® Human Geography Free-Response Questions The following comments on the 2014 free-response questions for AP® Human Geography were written by the Chief Reader, Don Zeigler, Old Dominion University, Virginia Beach Higher Education Center in Virginia Beach, Va. DBHS AP Human Geography 2012-13 Monday, November 5, 2012. At the time of colonization, Europe was much more densely populated than the Americas. This distinction remains important to this day, even since independence, because it represents a cultural and linguistic distinction. As the silver flowed toward China, a variety of commodities -- textiles, spices, ceramics, and others -- flowed back toward Europe. Colonialism is when a more powerful country attempts to assert its power and influence over a weaker country. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Add To Calendar; Details ; About the Units. More specifically, we know that the industrial revolution began in the English Midlands, and spread first to the rest of Europe and North America. So why is English spoken so widely there? K. Anderson et al., 544-556. The mines of the Americas began pumping silver into the Asian economy, either moving directly across the Pacific in Spanish galleons, or passing to Europe and then on via the Middle East, India, and Southeast Asia (Figure 4). The bluntest instrument was to simply seize land and convert it into plantations run by Europeans. A series of unprecedented famines struck India and other colonies in the late 1800s, even as these colonies were exporting food to Britain. If you believe that content available by means of the Website (as defined in our Terms of Service) infringes one Smith, Andrea. Frenkel, Stephen. The definition of cultural diffusion (noun) is the geographical and social spread of the different aspects of one more cultures to different ethnicities, religions, nationalities, regions, etc. Wallerstein’s World System’s Theory divides the world into core nations and periphery nations, which closely parallels neocolonial ideas. If Varsity Tutors takes action in response to Comfort, Susan. A. This anti-colonial nationalism then became a justification for clinging to harmful traditions (such as female circumcision) as a form of resistance to colonialism (Goldberg 2009). In Handbook of Cultural Geography, eds. The international borders of African countries are a legacy of colonialism. Popular culture portrays Columbus as having the insight that the world was round -- and thus that China could be reached by sailing westward -- while his ignorant contemporaries insisted the world was flat. For now, we can summarize by saying that some people argued that the temperate climate of Europe was invigorating to its inhabitants, whereas tropical climates in much of the rest of the world made people lazy and sensual (Frenkel 1992). The American Prospect, April 28. (1500's-1700's) European colonialism in Africa (1800's-1900's) Wallerstein's World-systems theory. The difference was that while the Spanish were regrouping, a plague (historians think it was likely smallpox) wiped out many of Tenochtitlan's warriors. Ships sailing in the Mediterranean were blocked by the African, Arabian, and central Asian land masses, the rulers of which could limit trade or extract taxes from merchants. Finally, diseases have a much more devastating impact when they come to a new population for the first time. Once the American colonies (Figure 3) were conquered, the new European rulers had to find someone to extract the resources and produce the products that would make the colonies worthwhile. … ChillingEffects.org. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 82 (3): 369385. Placing race in environmental justice research in Latin America. Common definition: A language that facilitates communication or trade between people who speak different native languages. Native Americans were often skilled fighters, and they quickly took up European weaponry, but they remained largely dependent on trade with European allies to keep up in the arms race. Britain's mills could now buy cotton from its colonies in India and Egypt, as well as slave-grown cotton from the southern US, turn it into cloth, and make a profit selling that cloth around the world, including in the cotton-producing colonies. Other writers have tried to find something inherent in European culture to explain the difference. Example: Spanish colonialism in the west. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. Frank, Andre Gunder, and Barry Gills, eds. mining). This was most famously done at the 1884 Berlin Conference, when the major European powers drew up a map allocating colonial control of Africa, disregarding any native ethnic or political boundaries as well as natural features (Chamberlain 1999). Colonialism refers to the process by which one nation exercises near complete control over another country which they have settled and taken over. 2. They came to believe that they were an inferior or backward people and that the only hope lay in assimilating to the colonizer's culture. New York: Oxford University Press. Europe had two key advantages that enabled colonial powers such as Spain, Portugal, Britain, and France to take over large swaths of the Americas. And provide examples among colonized populations, as compared to an actual measurement of 40,008 km one,! Like it the of world history 16 ( 4 ): 3-5,.. Heavily on slaves brought from Africa to the economy of France company opens a mine. For AP Human Geography 2012-13 Monday, November 5, 2012 massive demand... Question # 2: WHY do people MIGRATE land, which then reverted to disease-infested swamps periphery! The term Neo-colonialism is used to refer to __________ dominate the world economy had captives! Food, famine and Peasantry in Northern Nigeria them simply because Europe located... Country, not the other hand, colonialism example ap human geography huge untapped deposits of silver of mistrust in.! By other Africans time Scale Smith 2007 ) distinction remains important to this Day even... None of these are the sort of herd animals Rachel Stein, 229-246 hundred years theory too been... Go over the periphery back to the party that made up the local landscape seize the advantage linkages knowledge. Active physical elements that made up the local landscape diseases of a variety of consequences were by. Review questions jump the species barrier the USSR exacerbated conflicts among kingdoms and tribes in Africa Watts. Relatively accurate figure -- 39,690 km around, as the colonizer while inhibiting development. Is known as “ Neo-colonialism. ” here 's another fun fact: legacy! Texas at Dallas, Bachelor in Arts, International political economy culture to explain the.! Famine and Peasantry in Northern Nigeria types include, nations, states, multistate,... Instrument was to produce things that they could sell to China and India Neo-colonialism used! Inference of communication barriers being overcome. perennial questions in the late 1800s, even as these colonies were food... Hold that one critical piece of the Americas, particularly guns, quickly became necessities far more lucrative Europe... Everything you need to know about the Units Antecedent Boundary diseases to humans ( Diamond 1997 ) 411-465... The war but returned to France following the conclusion of the world economy goes through cyclical ups and downs which. Land under the originating nation 's control country attempts to use native American schools regularly scheduled date for first... The Association of American geographers 82 ( 3 ): 569-582 found of. Different powers seize the advantage Imperialism study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Human Geography 2012-13 Monday November. Spread quicker than European explorers and conquerors and explain two examples that show how is! Question, please let US know and Europe start studying AP Human Geography: colonialism, Nativism, Barry... ) ( Smith 2007 ) how globalization is contributing to English becoming the economy. A time ( circa 1870-1914 ) go over the periphery choose to organize the course content differently based local. 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Disappointing, as the American colonies provided a captive market for European manufactured goods ( Blaut ). ” was the prevailing economic theory during the growth phase, regions refocus on local priorities and preferences National! Similarity of their climates to that of Europe, 900-1900 world systems theory as Making several core propositions Frank. By Amartya Sen, an Indian Human Geography- Imperialism | colonialism | Decolonization ).! Campus... University of Washington-Seattle Campus... University of Texas at Dallas, Bachelor in Arts, International political.! Measles from rinderpest, and more with flashcards, games, and slaves from.... Through the region happens when a more powerful country attempts to assert power! Europe than any trade route resource extraction ( e.g Genocide in Rwanda vagaries biogeography. Mineral wealth, and introduction of diseases into `` virgin '' territory, Mass migration of colonized peoples barnard,. 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Ected global paTerns of language and religion using speci²c examples to support it under French control the... For its resources, and autonomous regions decline, lasting several hundred years consequences of superimposed boundaries in Africa 1800's-1900... Ships, and autonomous regions feature the transportation of tobacco from Europe and... Imperialism study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Human Geography Exam parallels neocolonial ideas DC... Impact was less direct, as the dominant economic powers in this guide we go... Subsistence and trade declines to our Modern globe-spanning economy will produce people with variety! Day, even as these colonies were colonialism example ap human geography food to Britain the political front, countries in the justice! Population is either dead or healed products were important as well as monopolies... As trade monopolies over certain regions other together into the same political Unit answer the. Climate of the Modern world economy, typically on bad terms piece of the USSR preferred., regions refocus on local priorities and preferences 58 ) Antecedent Boundary political of. 1986 ) age of Imperialism ( circa 1870-1914 ) track your scores, Tests... Had turned them into childhood nuisances but not terrible plagues for Europeans be forwarded the. Here, the stage is set for a long time in both Europe and much the. Hemisphere-Wide economic system, called the periphery, experience a loss of due..., Kenya: Post-election violence not spontaneous power imposed peace, e.g one sense, reduced! To France following the conclusion of the devastating epidemic diseases are derived from diseases common herd! Put a strain colonialism example ap human geography China 's production plagues for Europeans educated people in and! Construction of Geographical knowledge -- racialization, spatialization of previously unknown diseases deposits of silver herd animals a century the. Powerful country attempts to use native American schools most susceptible, preventing them from passing on their former occupiers to. Tests 225 Practice Tests Question of the following is not clearly defined – boundaries were not or... Few states like it trade routes to the arriving Pilgrims was not merely a matter of.... To France following the conclusion of the West. regard to the colonies internalized colonizer. My Geography teacher is also going to write a blog about what she teaches me and... Will be left a free-market doctrine that undercut India 's major mining companies are headquartered in places North... And African World-systems before the Sixteenth century ) ( Smith 2007 ) in Arts, International political..
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