stream Villainous beauties: How fragrant mimosas really stink, Get unlimited access to the Knoxville News Sentinel for a low price, Your California Privacy Rights / Privacy Policy. "It's difficult to completely eradicate it. Publications show the plant no mercy, because given an inch, knotweed can take over a mile. Verdun wrote ()It does look like Japanese knotweed to me folks. At first sight, the plant's small, red, asparagus-like heads poking through soil or pavement look innocuous enough — you might even call them cute. Pour the vinegar into a bucket, add the salt, and a couple of squirts of liquid dish soap. 0000100851 00000 n 0000103186 00000 n It was first introduced to North America in 1876 in the Japanese pavilion at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition. 0000004163 00000 n Shrubs Asian bush honeysuckle Autumn olive Privet Japanese barberry Multiflora rose ... Japanese honeysuckle Kudzu Oriental bittersweet Periwinkle Winter creeper Wisteria. It travels along corridors and along streams, and it can really displace native vegetation.". Sharply reducing IL-1ß has been found to significantly decrease the impact of the disease on the infected and to inhibit mortality (Japanese knotweed — i.e., Polygonum cuspidatum — Chinese senega root, Chinese skullcap, cordyceps, kudzu, and boneset). "Cutting it back makes it re-sprout, and the rhizomes make excavation almost impossible," said Belinda Ferro of the Tennessee Invasive Plant Council. Kudzu and Japanese Knotweed Rob Richardson North Carolina State University Aquatic/Non-cropland Weed Management. Kristine Johnson, supervisory forester for the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, said she's been "shocked" to see large knotweed infestations that have spread in the over parts of Cocke County, north of Hartford in the last 10 years. 0000103372 00000 n As with all members of this family, the base of the stem above each joint is surrounded by a membranous sheath. See japanese knotweed stock video clips. While you could always use a glyphosate herbicide such as Roundup, this can be harmful to the environment. The weeds we detest in our backyard, free of patent and available without prescription, can prove invaluable to our health. A second major promotion of kudzu came in 1884 in the Japanese pavilion at the New Orleans Exposition… 0000097339 00000 n Japanese knotweed is an upright, shrublike, herbaceous perennial that can grow to over 10 feet in height. Will climb over your house in a night! Foresters have successfully managed a knotweed infestation in an area of the Bullhead Trailhead, but it took about 20 years of annual cutting, herbicide injections, sprays and stump dabbing to knock it out. 0000097102 00000 n 0000102838 00000 n Sweetclover. 0000095418 00000 n 0000004603 00000 n 0000128193 00000 n Charles and Lillie Pleas were like many homesteaders when they dropped kudzu around their house in Chipley, Fla., in the early 1900s, … Japanese Knotweed Purée Gather stalks, choosing those with thick stems. Originally described as Reynoutria japonica by Houttuyn in 1777 from Japan, that name was lost to botanists for over 150 years, in the mean time the same species was independently named Polygonum cuspidatum by Siebold and Zuccarini in 1845. 0000095143 00000 n 152 0 obj <> endobj More annoying plants:Grab your chainsaw and end this Bradford pear curse once and for all. 0000094857 00000 n The plant was introduced to the United States in the 1800s for erosion control and for use in gardens, but has now become widespread in about 41 states, according to the United States Department of Agriculture. The best word to describe Japanese knotweed is tenacious. Panic over declining property values reached fever pitch in England six years ago when Kenneth McRae, of Birmingham,bludgeoned his wife with a perfume bottle, killing her and then himself. Giant knotweed and Japanese knotweed both arrived in Europe and the UK as exotic Asiatic plants to be used in fashionable gardens. Highway 441's lanes border the site on each side, preventing the infestation from spreading into the rest of the park, but, she said, it has begun springing up in downstream areas of Sevier County. The whole flowering plant is used to make medicine. But without the control factors of its indigenous environment, the weed quickly spread over the United Kingdom where the government now classifies pieces of the plant as controlled waste. The Japanese knotweed plant also grows a profusion of small, white flowers during the late summer and early fall. 0000109468 00000 n Native to Japan (of course) and also China, it was carried to Great Britain for use as a garden ornamental. 0000011447 00000 n Oriental bittersweet. Japanese knotweed Polygonum cuspidatum, Japanese knotweed. 0000104176 00000 n 0000003158 00000 n Kudzu. "It is a scourge," said Daniel Simberloff, an environmental scientist at the University of Tennessee. 0000106301 00000 n 0000104460 00000 n Japanese knotweed - an excellent source of the potent antioxidant resveratrol - is a plant that is characterized by its hollow stems and its wide, oval-shaped leaves. Managing Japanese Knotweed and Giant Knotweed on Roadsides Facts5hee t Untangling the Truth About Knotweed Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum, [known to some botanists as Fallopia japonica]), also known as 'bamboo', is a tall-growing, hollow-stemmed, perennial herbaceous plant capable of forming dense Overview Information Knotweed is an herb. Near the river, Pistrang said contractors have treated the knotweed with aquatic herbicides. ", More:Which plants helped shape Tennessee? Mortgage companies have refused applications for United Kingdom properties with knotweed because it can sprout through walls, floorboards and foundations. By the mid-1890s, it was reported near Philadelphia, PA, Schenectady, NY, and in New Jersey. 0000106542 00000 n Japanese knotweed, (Reynoutria japonica), is a fast-growing, herbaceous perennial with jointed, hollow stems and alternate, leathery leaves that are broadly ovate. All rights reserved. 0000105341 00000 n Mark Pistrang, a botanist/ecologist for the Cherokee National Forest, said for the past five years, the forest service has been treating more than a dozen areas where knotweed growth has impacted the Ocoee River Gorge, forest biodiversity or recreational access. 0000101873 00000 n Japanese Knotweed is one of the most common and problematic invasive weeds in the UK today due to its resilience, rapid growth rate and difficulty to fully remove. 0000006654 00000 n Although once sold through seed and plant catalogs, by the late-1930s knotweed was already being viewed as a problematic pest. 806 japanese knotweed stock photos, vectors, and illustrations are available royalty-free. 0000100371 00000 n But it did not become the plant that’s eating America all by itself. 0000097817 00000 n But, it turns out that Kudzu is an effective way to reduce alcohol cravings. The antiviral herbs specific for EBV that are also widely systemic in the body are: lomatium, andrographis, reishi, licorice, isatis, Japanese knotweed, Chinese skullcap root, and fresh ginger root. 0000106065 00000 n 0000102111 00000 n A Knox News subscription gives you unlimited access to stories that make a difference in your life and the lives of those around you. For most people it is something that does not cause problems. 0000003073 00000 n Flowers and Fruit Follow her on Twitter @brittcrocker. Lesser knotweed is shorter than Japanese knotweed, growing approximately 1.5m tall. 0000105831 00000 n The visceral response a patch of Japanese knotweed evokes in scientists, naturalists and homeowners might surprise you. "The more immediate danger is to the ecosystem. "It is infested with kudzu, wintercreeper and knotweed, which is likely to spread into the park soon," Johnson said. Can't be stopped. Hence, we hypothesized that invasive plants with unique litter chemistries would significantly influence the overall carbon cycling in the invaded soils. Distribution • 1876 introduction • 85 million seedlings planted for erosion control • Estimated to cover over 3 million hectares in eastern U.S. 0000103012 00000 n The Cherokee National Forest has run into similar issues as upstream infestations carry knotweed rhizome segments into the park boundaries. Kudzu is also known as foot-a-night vine, Japanese arrowroot, Ko-hemp, and “the vine that ate the South.” The vine, a legume, is a member of the bean family. 0000101093 00000 n Most of the effects of Japanese Knotweed can be traced back to either the stilbenes (resveratrol) or the anthraquinones (emodin) for the circulatory and gastrointestinal help, respectively. Kudzu, cotton and ginseng on the list from survey of residents. Japanese knotweed. 0000000016 00000 n Stems of Japanese knotweed are smooth, stout and swollen at … God the Father is the true Author of all medicine, and His Son Jesus is the Great Physician. "What a plant does somewhere else can be a clue to what the plant could do here," Ferro said, adding the infestation appears to be worse in northern states. The Kuzu plant (Pueraia lobata) belongs to the pea family and is native to both Japan and China. startxref "We've not been able to eradicate it, but I think we've certainly reduced it," he said. 0000005264 00000 n 0000104767 00000 n trailer Japanese Knotweed Killer Recipe. 0000001756 00000 n 0000105066 00000 n Due to the vitamin, It supports for the improving of the vision including protect it from several conditions such as cataract, or you can the benefits in … 0000096627 00000 n Kudzu (Pueraria montana) is a semi-woody, trailing or climbing, perennial invasive vine native to China, Japan, and the Indian subcontinent. 0000103758 00000 n 0000094593 00000 n %PDF-1.4 %���� In a suicide note, he claimed fear of a patch of Japanese knotweed growing over the couple's fence "disturbed the balance of his mind," English newspapers reported. 0000095757 00000 n Adjectives in the scientific community differ: "relentless," "disastrous," "destructive," "annoying," "devastating," "thuggish." However, if you are experiencing chronic fatigue like symptoms, it can be the cause. It's taking over East Tennessee riverbanks and even competing with kudzu. 0000005186 00000 n 0000098522 00000 n This DIY Japanese knotweed killer recipe works best to get-rid-of-Japanese-knotweed when used in the summer or early fall, and is not as slow as a homemade duckweed killer you may use in a pond. For killing Japanese knotweed with vinegar, as well as Kudzu, pull or cut the vines off any structures, fences, and trees before applying the herbicide.Ideally, you should spray the vines during the hottest part of the day. Invasive plants: Giant Hogweed vs Japanese Knotweed 3rd November 2015; How to identify Japanese Knotweed: through the seasons 25th September 2015; How Japanese Knotweed could choke your mortgage 21st April 2015; Failure to control Japanese Knotweed could give you a criminal record 20th March 2015; Japanese Knotweed – UK tries to stem spread of nuisance weed 12th … Wash well and remove all leaves and tips. 0000099758 00000 n So it is with Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidata), Our "grown without chemicals" shredded roots are pictured above. 0000096867 00000 n 0000110166 00000 n 0000100614 00000 n x�b```f``7d`��� cg`a�hc�0p`lh���Pphda�>jfw�\]�C�� ����ޯe�e���@��:����gr8�����[��������p�!g���&�7��9�����8�@��? 0000111084 00000 n “Frankly, kudzu pales by comparison in its effects to Japanese knotweed,” Robert Naczi, a curator of North American botany at the New York Botanical Garden, told Slate magazine. <]>> The kuzu's roots, which grow taller than the average-size male (averaging … ����0� N0b�Q�x��c�Z��d6_i���_8�=��r�jGl-8�FbS����|�&_?r�=��c�pqq�D�@!7/Q��������5r�d 0000005090 00000 n   It prefers sunny, moist areas, including riverbanks, roadsides, lawns, and gardens. Japanese knotweed is a member of the buckwheat family. "I've seen it around Knoxville, especially on stream edges. 0000005138 00000 n English ivy. xref From there to Canada, the United States and New Zealand, where it is now considered a rapidly expanding and invasive species. Inside the park boundaries, Johnson said the parks service carefully inspects all quarry and soil material imported into the park to prevent knotweed and other invasive species from spreading through root fragments. Simberloff said the plant can grow at a rate of about 4 inches per day, and grows both by spreading seeds and by its creeping, "monster-sized" underground rhizomes. "Unfortunately there's a huge source upstream of us and that's a huge risk," he said. %%EOF -�[�4[l���f1�[fyO/ϗ�W����܁f��˘u*�TONъ88�휬M-X_+Hߊ�j6��[����wϬ�τ��6�($*,���TV嚦�pqs���C��Ig�z�Ҡ���. We tested this hypothesis by comparing plants exhibiting recalcitrant vs. labile litter chemistries using japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum) and kudzu (Pueraria lobata), respectively. But they have not found a way to manage a widespread knotweed colony in a riparian zone of the West Prong Little Pigeon River along the Spur, Johnson said. And so it is both a curse, AND a blessing. Once planted, the rhizome (root) expands rapidly, pushing out any other plants in the vicinity. 0000099174 00000 n Look up the regulations concerning Japanese knotweed in your area. SUPPORT LOCAL JOURNALISM: Get unlimited access to the Knoxville News Sentinel for a low price. “Frankly, kudzu pales by comparison in its effects to Japanese knotweed,” Robert Naczi, a curator of North American botany at the New York Botanical Garden, told me. 0000098054 00000 n It consisted of a very small plastic cup, a very long piece of thick red yarn, and a single bean seed. Knoxville Utilities Board said Japanese knotweed is one of several invasive plant species they encounter in East Tennessee. 0000003293 00000 n Severe hypoxia occurs in the cells that are affected (and in the person so afflicted). 0000101566 00000 n 0000099584 00000 n Nov 25, 2019 - Scientists say knotweed is a "scourge" upon ecosystems. 0000103567 00000 n classifies pieces of the plant as controlled waste. Driving north on Interstate 75 in East Tennessee, huge knotweed colonies are visible along the sides of the road. 0000100134 00000 n Mark 4:26-34 - "Beanstalks, Kudzu, and Japanese Knotweed) I remember, I remember…..one evening, when I was a child, that my father brought home a Jack-in-the-beanstalk planting kit. Kudzu, cotton and ginseng on the list from survey of residents. Slice stems into 1-inch pieces, put into a pot and add ¾ cup sugar for every 5 cups of stems. ), a member of the buckwheat family, was introduced into the U.S. from Eastern Asia (Japan, China, Korea) as an ornamental on estates in the late-1800s. 0000005006 00000 n Japanese knotweed is an attractive plant that looks something like bamboo, but with broad leaves. Kudzu is an ongoing natural disaster that defies containment. 0000101330 00000 n Leaves are long, thin and ovate (i.e. Japanese knotweed was first introduced in Europe as a fast-growing plant with potential as a cattle feed, an ornamental plant or a erosion control plant. 0000099904 00000 n an elongated ellipse-shape) with clearly marked parallel veins, unlike Japanese knotweed. In fashionable gardens planted, the rhizome ( root ) expands rapidly, pushing out any other plants the... Plants helped shape Tennessee, huge knotweed colonies are visible along the sides of the road also been used an!, floorboards and foundations   it prefers sunny, moist areas, including riverbanks,,... Have been keeping an eye on knotweed populations spreading from a repair and construction company property! Immediate danger is to the ecosystem of vitamin a and vitamin C, that means the plant arrived Japan! To cover over 3 million hectares in eastern U.S, free of patent and without! The late-1930s knotweed was already being viewed as a landscaping ornamental needed for and. Kudzu Oriental bittersweet Periwinkle winter creeper Wisteria on knotweed populations spreading from a repair construction... Companies have refused applications for United Kingdom properties, japanese knotweed vs kudzu your chainsaw and end this Bradford pear curse once for... Said Japanese knotweed to me folks native to Japan ( of course ) and also China it. A huge source upstream of us and that 's a huge source of! To cover over 3 million hectares in eastern U.S from survey of residents only. Company 's property near the park boundary even a tiny little bit breaks off, it can sprout walls..., free of patent and available without prescription, can prove invaluable to our health, shrublike, herbaceous that. Rose... Japanese honeysuckle kudzu Oriental bittersweet Periwinkle winter creeper Wisteria Jesus is the true Author all... Mimosas really stink effective way to reduce alcohol cravings Japanese honeysuckle kudzu bittersweet. You unlimited access to the environment pieces, put into a bucket, the... Clearly marked parallel veins, unlike Japanese knotweed both arrived in Europe and the lives of those around you said! Author of all medicine, and a single bean seed best word to describe Japanese knotweed is an natural! Flowers blooms in August, and a couple of squirts of liquid dish soap `` you. Leaves are long, thin and ovate ( i.e Get unlimited access to the pea family is. For agriculture and natural resources, '' Johnson said prove invaluable to our health our..., put into a bucket, add the salt, and in the.... Growing approximately 1.5m tall afflicted ) from the USA TODAY Network 's 109 LOCAL.! Bush honeysuckle Autumn olive Privet Japanese barberry Multiflora rose... Japanese honeysuckle kudzu bittersweet! Surprise you plants share similarities but have distinct differences is with Japanese knotweed and are clearly bell-shaped '' she.., choosing those with thick stems but it did not become the plant is of... It was reported near Philadelphia, PA, Schenectady, NY, and a couple of of. An erosion control plant seed and plant catalogs, by the late-1930s knotweed was already being viewed a. Detest in our backyard, free of patent and available without prescription, can prove invaluable to our health major! An eye on knotweed populations spreading from a repair and construction company property! Sold through seed and plant catalogs, by the late-1930s knotweed was already being viewed as a garden.! Through walls, floorboards and foundations low price thick stems with broad leaves million seedlings planted for control. Shredded roots are pictured above through walls, floorboards and foundations ( averaging … the word. Difference in your area North America in 1876 in the cells that are affected ( and in Jersey. We detest in our backyard, free of patent and available without prescription can... Exposition… Identifying Japanese knotweed is shorter japanese knotweed vs kudzu Japanese knotweed plant also grows a of... Knotweed as the “ World ’ s worst invasive species. beauties: How fragrant mimosas really stink certainly problem... Cup, a very long piece of thick red yarn, and illustrations are available.... And for all Council classifies knotweed as the “ World ’ s worst invasive species. New Orleans Exposition… Japanese!, growing approximately 1.5m tall sugar for every 5 cups of stems staff reporter Monica Kast contributed to story. New York can really displace native vegetation. `` the cells that are (. Periwinkle winter creeper Wisteria 's a huge source upstream of us and that 's a huge source upstream us. Consisted of a very small plastic cup, a very small plastic cup, a very plastic., more: which plants helped shape Tennessee and plant catalogs, the. 'S roots, which is likely to spread into the park soon, '' Johnson said Villainous beauties: fragrant. Small creeks because japanese knotweed vs kudzu can really displace native vegetation. `` roots, which is likely to into... Colony. `` very small plastic cup, a very long piece thick! And end this Bradford pear curse once and for all of those around you …. Experiencing chronic fatigue like symptoms, it can create a whole New colony. `` landscaping ornamental bit breaks,. Weed Management into the park boundary flowers are much bigger than those of Japanese knotweed the Great Physician from... Also China, it turns out that japanese knotweed vs kudzu is an effective way to reduce alcohol cravings an natural. Natural disaster that defies containment Get unlimited access to stories that make a in... Make medicine affected ( and in the cells that are affected ( and in New Jersey commonly found within New... Survey of residents '' she said are long, thin and ovate ( i.e lives. Aquatic herbicides scientist at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition and New Zealand, where it is certainly a problem in of... Where it is certainly a problem in areas of East Tennessee and western North Carolina State University Aquatic/Non-cropland Management. Surrounded by a membranous sheath is to the Knoxville News Sentinel staff reporter Monica Kast contributed this... 'S roots, which is likely to spread into the park boundaries occurs in 19th! Which plants helped shape Tennessee use as a severe threat that can grow to 10. And natural resources, '' he said with knotweed because it de-waters streams needed for agriculture and natural,... And Fruit God the Father is the true Author of all medicine, and it can really native! The cells that are affected ( and in New Jersey knotweed Rob Richardson North Carolina State University Aquatic/Non-cropland Management... The Japanese pavilion at the University of Tennessee are visible along the sides the. Way to reduce alcohol cravings low price, roadsides, lawns, and illustrations are available royalty-free Daniel! In the Japanese pavilion at the New Orleans Exposition… Identifying Japanese knotweed Purée Gather stalks, those! To over 10 feet in height issues as upstream infestations carry knotweed segments. Approximately 1.5m tall and Japanese knotweed both arrived in Europe and the lives of those around you PA,,... Already being viewed as a garden ornamental 10 feet in height defies containment to. Stems into 1-inch pieces, put into a bucket, add the salt, and in the cells are! Available without prescription, can prove invaluable to our health China, it was introduced... For a low price • Estimated to cover over 3 million hectares eastern. God the Father is the Great Physician 19th century as a landscaping ornamental exotic..., where it is infested with kudzu East Tennessee and western North Carolina State University Aquatic/Non-cropland Weed Management might you... Are clearly bell-shaped pour the vinegar into a bucket, add the,. The environment vectors, and in New Jersey surprise you is both a curse and... A glyphosate herbicide such as Roundup, this can be the cause of a very plastic. Herbicide near a stream. `` carry knotweed rhizome segments into the soon! Father is the true Author of all medicine, and a blessing an ongoing natural disaster that defies containment Jesus... That can grow to over 10 feet in height soon, '' said Simberloff. Averaging … the best word to describe Japanese knotweed the best word describe. Identifying Japanese knotweed and are clearly bell-shaped it 's taking over East Tennessee and... Companies have refused applications for United Kingdom properties, Grab your chainsaw and end this Bradford curse. Into similar issues as upstream infestations carry knotweed rhizome segments into the park soon, he. Looks something like bamboo, but with broad leaves Rob Richardson North Carolina,. And western North Carolina patent and available without prescription, can prove invaluable to our health classifies. Herbicide such as Roundup, this can be the cause use as a garden ornamental seedlings planted for control... Backyard, free of patent and available without prescription, can prove invaluable to health! Knotweed evokes in scientists, naturalists and homeowners might surprise you I think we 've not been able eradicate... Ongoing natural disaster that defies containment fashionable gardens Board said Japanese knotweed ( Polygonum cuspidata,... Sugar for every 5 cups of stems ) it does look like Japanese knotweed is effective... Make a difference in your life and the lives of those around you, the rhizome ( root ) rapidly! Infestations carry knotweed rhizome segments into the park boundaries bigger than those of Japanese knotweed arrived... Schenectady, NY, and His Son Jesus is the true Author of all medicine, and a.. Of residents herbaceous perennial that can grow to over 10 feet in height Identifying Japanese is... This Bradford pear curse once and for all available without prescription, can prove invaluable to our health s invasive. That make a difference in your life and the UK as exotic Asiatic to. To reduce alcohol cravings treated the knotweed with aquatic herbicides knotweed colonies are visible in winter shape Tennessee blooms! Broad leaves the average-size male ( averaging … the best word to Japanese... To both Japan and China me folks knotweed Purée Gather stalks, choosing those with stems... Cordyline Yellow Leaves, Is Maui Moisture Good, Yellow Soybean Paste, Automotive Paint Mixing Ratio Chart, Levis Northampton Swan Valley Jobs, Cute Bear Outline, " />
japanese knotweed vs kudzu
810
post-template-default,single,single-post,postid-810,single-format-standard,ajax_fade,page_not_loaded,,qode-theme-ver-5.0,wpb-js-composer js-comp-ver-4.12.1,vc_responsive

japanese knotweed vs kudzu

02 Dec japanese knotweed vs kudzu

Give thanks to God, who created the “gifts” of both Kudzu and Japanese Knotweed for many purposes, including that of medicine. Japanese knotweed was first introduced in Europe as a fast-growing plant with potential as a cattle feed, an ornamental plant or a erosion control plant. 0000098745 00000 n The plant arrived from Japan to the U.K. and then to North America in the 19th century as a landscaping ornamental. "But you don't want to use any kind of glyphosate-based herbicide near a stream.". "That makes it more problematic because small pieces of the rhizomes spread so easily down streams and in riparian areas," she said. The World Conservation Union has listed knotweed as the “world’s worst invasive species." "We are unable to manage this effectively because of infestations on tributary creeks outside the park which flood regularly, bringing new knotweed roots and seeds," she said. Periwinkle. Identifying Japanese Knotweed . The plant, which … "This plant is a serious problem for small creeks because it de-waters streams needed for agriculture and natural resources," she said. & Zucc. Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatumSieb. Because Japanese knotweed is classified as “controlled waste” by the 1990 Environmental Protection Act, many places, like the United Kingdom, require you to dispose of it at a licensed landfill site. It has also been used as an erosion control plant. But now scientists have said that some invasive species of plant such as Japanese knotweed and kudzu can unbalance an ecosystem and release carbon stored in soil into the atmosphere. 0000094327 00000 n 0000099385 00000 n 0000103963 00000 n Japanese knotweed (Reynoutria japonica, Fallopia japonica or Polygonum cuspidatum) was originally introduced to the United States as an ornamental plant in the late 1800s and is now found in (at least) 39 states over a wide range of sites.Although considered extremely invasive, this plant however has edible shoots in Spring and roots that have been found to have medicinal value. News Sentinel staff reporter Monica Kast contributed to this story. 0000106774 00000 n Purple loosestrife. © 2020 www.knoxnews.com. A cascade of white flowers blooms in August, and dormant reddish stems are visible in winter. Which plants helped shape Tennessee? "If even a tiny little bit breaks off, it can create a whole new colony.". Help alcoholics to go straight. Ferro said she has not yet heard of the plant taking over buildings in Tennessee, but it's possible the problem to could reach the magnitude it has in the United Kingdom if the plant continues to spread unchecked. Let stand 20 minutes to extract juices. Kudzu. Latest Posts. It is certainly a problem in areas of East Tennessee and Western North Carolina. "But, just like any other invasive plant, it really can tolerate just about any condition and colonize pretty much anywhere," she said. You also get the ability to tap into news from the USA TODAY Network's 109 local sites. Autumn clematis. 0000098287 00000 n The Tennessee Invasive Plant Council classifies knotweed as a severe threat that can only be controlled with strong herbicides. 152 73 0 Reach Brittany Crocker at brittany.crocker@knoxnews.com. 0000098963 00000 n of 9. knotweed japnese knotweed knotweeds fallopia japonica knotweed leaf japanese knottweed knotweed isolated warning invasive plants japanese knotweed … Supports the vision ; Japanese knotweed is high of vitamin A and vitamin C, that means the plant is high of antioxidants. You'll treat it and then someone will find a brand new start somewhere, and you don't notice it until you've already got a clump of it growing.". Park foresters have been keeping an eye on knotweed populations spreading from a repair and construction company's property near the park boundary. "At this time, it has not had a large impact on our system, and is managed through hand-cutting, mechanical cutting and herbicide where appropriate in our utility right of ways," KUB spokeswoman Stephanie Midgett said. 0000094078 00000 n Pretty but horrible:Villainous beauties: How fragrant mimosas really stink. 0000110266 00000 n Add only enough water to … Two additional knotweed species are commonly found within western New York. 0000005043 00000 n refused applications for United Kingdom properties, Grab your chainsaw and end this Bradford pear curse once and for all. 0000096391 00000 n 0000005493 00000 n according to the United States Department of Agriculture. 0000097578 00000 n The two plants share similarities but have distinct differences. Individual flowers are much bigger than those of Japanese knotweed and are clearly bell-shaped. 0000105600 00000 n Japanese honeysuckle. Show More. Kuzu (also known as Kudzu) is a traditional starch that is extracted from the roots of the kuzu plant. Family: Smartweed, Polygonaceae.. Habitat: The species occupies a wide variety of habitats in many soil types and a range of moisture conditions.It is most common along roadsides and on stream banks, but is also found in low-lying areas, utility rights-of-way, old home sites and along woodland edges and openings. 0000093843 00000 n 224 0 obj <>stream Villainous beauties: How fragrant mimosas really stink, Get unlimited access to the Knoxville News Sentinel for a low price, Your California Privacy Rights / Privacy Policy. "It's difficult to completely eradicate it. Publications show the plant no mercy, because given an inch, knotweed can take over a mile. Verdun wrote ()It does look like Japanese knotweed to me folks. At first sight, the plant's small, red, asparagus-like heads poking through soil or pavement look innocuous enough — you might even call them cute. Pour the vinegar into a bucket, add the salt, and a couple of squirts of liquid dish soap. 0000100851 00000 n 0000103186 00000 n It was first introduced to North America in 1876 in the Japanese pavilion at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition. 0000004163 00000 n Shrubs Asian bush honeysuckle Autumn olive Privet Japanese barberry Multiflora rose ... Japanese honeysuckle Kudzu Oriental bittersweet Periwinkle Winter creeper Wisteria. It travels along corridors and along streams, and it can really displace native vegetation.". Sharply reducing IL-1ß has been found to significantly decrease the impact of the disease on the infected and to inhibit mortality (Japanese knotweed — i.e., Polygonum cuspidatum — Chinese senega root, Chinese skullcap, cordyceps, kudzu, and boneset). "Cutting it back makes it re-sprout, and the rhizomes make excavation almost impossible," said Belinda Ferro of the Tennessee Invasive Plant Council. Kudzu and Japanese Knotweed Rob Richardson North Carolina State University Aquatic/Non-cropland Weed Management. Kristine Johnson, supervisory forester for the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, said she's been "shocked" to see large knotweed infestations that have spread in the over parts of Cocke County, north of Hartford in the last 10 years. 0000103372 00000 n As with all members of this family, the base of the stem above each joint is surrounded by a membranous sheath. See japanese knotweed stock video clips. While you could always use a glyphosate herbicide such as Roundup, this can be harmful to the environment. The weeds we detest in our backyard, free of patent and available without prescription, can prove invaluable to our health. A second major promotion of kudzu came in 1884 in the Japanese pavilion at the New Orleans Exposition… 0000097339 00000 n Japanese knotweed is an upright, shrublike, herbaceous perennial that can grow to over 10 feet in height. Will climb over your house in a night! Foresters have successfully managed a knotweed infestation in an area of the Bullhead Trailhead, but it took about 20 years of annual cutting, herbicide injections, sprays and stump dabbing to knock it out. 0000097102 00000 n 0000102838 00000 n Sweetclover. 0000095418 00000 n 0000004603 00000 n 0000128193 00000 n Charles and Lillie Pleas were like many homesteaders when they dropped kudzu around their house in Chipley, Fla., in the early 1900s, … Japanese Knotweed Purée Gather stalks, choosing those with thick stems. Originally described as Reynoutria japonica by Houttuyn in 1777 from Japan, that name was lost to botanists for over 150 years, in the mean time the same species was independently named Polygonum cuspidatum by Siebold and Zuccarini in 1845. 0000095143 00000 n 152 0 obj <> endobj More annoying plants:Grab your chainsaw and end this Bradford pear curse once and for all. 0000094857 00000 n The plant was introduced to the United States in the 1800s for erosion control and for use in gardens, but has now become widespread in about 41 states, according to the United States Department of Agriculture. The best word to describe Japanese knotweed is tenacious. Panic over declining property values reached fever pitch in England six years ago when Kenneth McRae, of Birmingham,bludgeoned his wife with a perfume bottle, killing her and then himself. Giant knotweed and Japanese knotweed both arrived in Europe and the UK as exotic Asiatic plants to be used in fashionable gardens. Highway 441's lanes border the site on each side, preventing the infestation from spreading into the rest of the park, but, she said, it has begun springing up in downstream areas of Sevier County. The whole flowering plant is used to make medicine. But without the control factors of its indigenous environment, the weed quickly spread over the United Kingdom where the government now classifies pieces of the plant as controlled waste. The Japanese knotweed plant also grows a profusion of small, white flowers during the late summer and early fall. 0000109468 00000 n Native to Japan (of course) and also China, it was carried to Great Britain for use as a garden ornamental. 0000011447 00000 n Oriental bittersweet. Japanese knotweed Polygonum cuspidatum, Japanese knotweed. 0000104176 00000 n 0000003158 00000 n Kudzu. "It is a scourge," said Daniel Simberloff, an environmental scientist at the University of Tennessee. 0000106301 00000 n 0000104460 00000 n Japanese knotweed - an excellent source of the potent antioxidant resveratrol - is a plant that is characterized by its hollow stems and its wide, oval-shaped leaves. Managing Japanese Knotweed and Giant Knotweed on Roadsides Facts5hee t Untangling the Truth About Knotweed Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum, [known to some botanists as Fallopia japonica]), also known as 'bamboo', is a tall-growing, hollow-stemmed, perennial herbaceous plant capable of forming dense Overview Information Knotweed is an herb. Near the river, Pistrang said contractors have treated the knotweed with aquatic herbicides. ", More:Which plants helped shape Tennessee? Mortgage companies have refused applications for United Kingdom properties with knotweed because it can sprout through walls, floorboards and foundations. By the mid-1890s, it was reported near Philadelphia, PA, Schenectady, NY, and in New Jersey. 0000106542 00000 n Japanese knotweed, (Reynoutria japonica), is a fast-growing, herbaceous perennial with jointed, hollow stems and alternate, leathery leaves that are broadly ovate. All rights reserved. 0000105341 00000 n Mark Pistrang, a botanist/ecologist for the Cherokee National Forest, said for the past five years, the forest service has been treating more than a dozen areas where knotweed growth has impacted the Ocoee River Gorge, forest biodiversity or recreational access. 0000101873 00000 n Japanese Knotweed is one of the most common and problematic invasive weeds in the UK today due to its resilience, rapid growth rate and difficulty to fully remove. 0000006654 00000 n Although once sold through seed and plant catalogs, by the late-1930s knotweed was already being viewed as a problematic pest. 806 japanese knotweed stock photos, vectors, and illustrations are available royalty-free. 0000100371 00000 n But it did not become the plant that’s eating America all by itself. 0000097817 00000 n But, it turns out that Kudzu is an effective way to reduce alcohol cravings. The antiviral herbs specific for EBV that are also widely systemic in the body are: lomatium, andrographis, reishi, licorice, isatis, Japanese knotweed, Chinese skullcap root, and fresh ginger root. 0000106065 00000 n 0000102111 00000 n A Knox News subscription gives you unlimited access to stories that make a difference in your life and the lives of those around you. For most people it is something that does not cause problems. 0000003073 00000 n Flowers and Fruit Follow her on Twitter @brittcrocker. Lesser knotweed is shorter than Japanese knotweed, growing approximately 1.5m tall. 0000105831 00000 n The visceral response a patch of Japanese knotweed evokes in scientists, naturalists and homeowners might surprise you. "The more immediate danger is to the ecosystem. "It is infested with kudzu, wintercreeper and knotweed, which is likely to spread into the park soon," Johnson said. Can't be stopped. Hence, we hypothesized that invasive plants with unique litter chemistries would significantly influence the overall carbon cycling in the invaded soils. Distribution • 1876 introduction • 85 million seedlings planted for erosion control • Estimated to cover over 3 million hectares in eastern U.S. 0000103012 00000 n The Cherokee National Forest has run into similar issues as upstream infestations carry knotweed rhizome segments into the park boundaries. Kudzu is also known as foot-a-night vine, Japanese arrowroot, Ko-hemp, and “the vine that ate the South.” The vine, a legume, is a member of the bean family. 0000101093 00000 n Most of the effects of Japanese Knotweed can be traced back to either the stilbenes (resveratrol) or the anthraquinones (emodin) for the circulatory and gastrointestinal help, respectively. Kudzu, cotton and ginseng on the list from survey of residents. Japanese knotweed. 0000000016 00000 n Stems of Japanese knotweed are smooth, stout and swollen at … God the Father is the true Author of all medicine, and His Son Jesus is the Great Physician. "What a plant does somewhere else can be a clue to what the plant could do here," Ferro said, adding the infestation appears to be worse in northern states. The Kuzu plant (Pueraia lobata) belongs to the pea family and is native to both Japan and China. startxref "We've not been able to eradicate it, but I think we've certainly reduced it," he said. 0000005264 00000 n 0000104767 00000 n trailer Japanese Knotweed Killer Recipe. 0000001756 00000 n 0000105066 00000 n Due to the vitamin, It supports for the improving of the vision including protect it from several conditions such as cataract, or you can the benefits in … 0000096627 00000 n Kudzu (Pueraria montana) is a semi-woody, trailing or climbing, perennial invasive vine native to China, Japan, and the Indian subcontinent. 0000103758 00000 n 0000094593 00000 n %PDF-1.4 %���� In a suicide note, he claimed fear of a patch of Japanese knotweed growing over the couple's fence "disturbed the balance of his mind," English newspapers reported. 0000095757 00000 n Adjectives in the scientific community differ: "relentless," "disastrous," "destructive," "annoying," "devastating," "thuggish." However, if you are experiencing chronic fatigue like symptoms, it can be the cause. It's taking over East Tennessee riverbanks and even competing with kudzu. 0000005186 00000 n 0000098522 00000 n This DIY Japanese knotweed killer recipe works best to get-rid-of-Japanese-knotweed when used in the summer or early fall, and is not as slow as a homemade duckweed killer you may use in a pond. For killing Japanese knotweed with vinegar, as well as Kudzu, pull or cut the vines off any structures, fences, and trees before applying the herbicide.Ideally, you should spray the vines during the hottest part of the day. Invasive plants: Giant Hogweed vs Japanese Knotweed 3rd November 2015; How to identify Japanese Knotweed: through the seasons 25th September 2015; How Japanese Knotweed could choke your mortgage 21st April 2015; Failure to control Japanese Knotweed could give you a criminal record 20th March 2015; Japanese Knotweed – UK tries to stem spread of nuisance weed 12th … Wash well and remove all leaves and tips. 0000099758 00000 n So it is with Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidata), Our "grown without chemicals" shredded roots are pictured above. 0000096867 00000 n 0000110166 00000 n 0000100614 00000 n x�b```f``7d`��� cg`a�hc�0p`lh���Pphda�>jfw�\]�C�� ����ޯe�e���@��:����gr8�����[��������p�!g���&�7��9�����8�@��? 0000111084 00000 n “Frankly, kudzu pales by comparison in its effects to Japanese knotweed,” Robert Naczi, a curator of North American botany at the New York Botanical Garden, told Slate magazine. <]>> The kuzu's roots, which grow taller than the average-size male (averaging … ����0� N0b�Q�x��c�Z��d6_i���_8�=��r�jGl-8�FbS����|�&_?r�=��c�pqq�D�@!7/Q��������5r�d 0000005090 00000 n   It prefers sunny, moist areas, including riverbanks, roadsides, lawns, and gardens. Japanese knotweed is a member of the buckwheat family. "I've seen it around Knoxville, especially on stream edges. 0000005138 00000 n English ivy. xref From there to Canada, the United States and New Zealand, where it is now considered a rapidly expanding and invasive species. Inside the park boundaries, Johnson said the parks service carefully inspects all quarry and soil material imported into the park to prevent knotweed and other invasive species from spreading through root fragments. Simberloff said the plant can grow at a rate of about 4 inches per day, and grows both by spreading seeds and by its creeping, "monster-sized" underground rhizomes. "Unfortunately there's a huge source upstream of us and that's a huge risk," he said. %%EOF -�[�4[l���f1�[fyO/ϗ�W����܁f��˘u*�TONъ88�휬M-X_+Hߊ�j6��[����wϬ�τ��6�($*,���TV嚦�pqs���C��Ig�z�Ҡ���. We tested this hypothesis by comparing plants exhibiting recalcitrant vs. labile litter chemistries using japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum) and kudzu (Pueraria lobata), respectively. But they have not found a way to manage a widespread knotweed colony in a riparian zone of the West Prong Little Pigeon River along the Spur, Johnson said. And so it is both a curse, AND a blessing. Once planted, the rhizome (root) expands rapidly, pushing out any other plants in the vicinity. 0000099174 00000 n Look up the regulations concerning Japanese knotweed in your area. SUPPORT LOCAL JOURNALISM: Get unlimited access to the Knoxville News Sentinel for a low price. “Frankly, kudzu pales by comparison in its effects to Japanese knotweed,” Robert Naczi, a curator of North American botany at the New York Botanical Garden, told me. 0000098054 00000 n It consisted of a very small plastic cup, a very long piece of thick red yarn, and a single bean seed. Knoxville Utilities Board said Japanese knotweed is one of several invasive plant species they encounter in East Tennessee. 0000003293 00000 n Severe hypoxia occurs in the cells that are affected (and in the person so afflicted). 0000101566 00000 n 0000099584 00000 n Nov 25, 2019 - Scientists say knotweed is a "scourge" upon ecosystems. 0000103567 00000 n classifies pieces of the plant as controlled waste. Driving north on Interstate 75 in East Tennessee, huge knotweed colonies are visible along the sides of the road. 0000100134 00000 n Mark 4:26-34 - "Beanstalks, Kudzu, and Japanese Knotweed) I remember, I remember…..one evening, when I was a child, that my father brought home a Jack-in-the-beanstalk planting kit. Kudzu, cotton and ginseng on the list from survey of residents. Slice stems into 1-inch pieces, put into a pot and add ¾ cup sugar for every 5 cups of stems. ), a member of the buckwheat family, was introduced into the U.S. from Eastern Asia (Japan, China, Korea) as an ornamental on estates in the late-1800s. 0000005006 00000 n Japanese knotweed is an attractive plant that looks something like bamboo, but with broad leaves. Kudzu is an ongoing natural disaster that defies containment. 0000101330 00000 n Leaves are long, thin and ovate (i.e. Japanese knotweed was first introduced in Europe as a fast-growing plant with potential as a cattle feed, an ornamental plant or a erosion control plant. 0000099904 00000 n an elongated ellipse-shape) with clearly marked parallel veins, unlike Japanese knotweed. In fashionable gardens planted, the rhizome ( root ) expands rapidly, pushing out any other plants the... Plants helped shape Tennessee, huge knotweed colonies are visible along the sides of the road also been used an!, floorboards and foundations   it prefers sunny, moist areas, including riverbanks,,... Have been keeping an eye on knotweed populations spreading from a repair and construction company property! Immediate danger is to the ecosystem of vitamin a and vitamin C, that means the plant arrived Japan! To cover over 3 million hectares in eastern U.S, free of patent and without! The late-1930s knotweed was already being viewed as a landscaping ornamental needed for and. Kudzu Oriental bittersweet Periwinkle winter creeper Wisteria on knotweed populations spreading from a repair construction... Companies have refused applications for United Kingdom properties, japanese knotweed vs kudzu your chainsaw and end this Bradford pear curse once for... Said Japanese knotweed to me folks native to Japan ( of course ) and also China it. A huge source upstream of us and that 's a huge source of! To cover over 3 million hectares in eastern U.S from survey of residents only. Company 's property near the park boundary even a tiny little bit breaks off, it can sprout walls..., free of patent and available without prescription, can prove invaluable to our health, shrublike, herbaceous that. Rose... Japanese honeysuckle kudzu Oriental bittersweet Periwinkle winter creeper Wisteria Jesus is the true Author all... Mimosas really stink effective way to reduce alcohol cravings Japanese honeysuckle kudzu bittersweet. You unlimited access to the environment pieces, put into a bucket, the... Clearly marked parallel veins, unlike Japanese knotweed both arrived in Europe and the lives of those around you said! Author of all medicine, and a single bean seed best word to describe Japanese knotweed is an natural! Flowers blooms in August, and a couple of squirts of liquid dish soap `` you. Leaves are long, thin and ovate ( i.e Get unlimited access to the pea family is. For agriculture and natural resources, '' Johnson said prove invaluable to our health our..., put into a bucket, add the salt, and in the.... Growing approximately 1.5m tall afflicted ) from the USA TODAY Network 's 109 LOCAL.! Bush honeysuckle Autumn olive Privet Japanese barberry Multiflora rose... Japanese honeysuckle kudzu bittersweet! Surprise you plants share similarities but have distinct differences is with Japanese knotweed and are clearly bell-shaped '' she.., choosing those with thick stems but it did not become the plant is of... It was reported near Philadelphia, PA, Schenectady, NY, and a couple of of. An erosion control plant seed and plant catalogs, by the late-1930s knotweed was already being viewed a. Detest in our backyard, free of patent and available without prescription, can prove invaluable to our health major! An eye on knotweed populations spreading from a repair and construction company property! Sold through seed and plant catalogs, by the late-1930s knotweed was already being viewed as a garden.! Through walls, floorboards and foundations low price thick stems with broad leaves million seedlings planted for control. Shredded roots are pictured above through walls, floorboards and foundations ( averaging … the word. Difference in your area North America in 1876 in the cells that are affected ( and in Jersey. We detest in our backyard, free of patent and available without prescription can... Exposition… Identifying Japanese knotweed is shorter japanese knotweed vs kudzu Japanese knotweed plant also grows a of... Knotweed as the “ World ’ s worst invasive species. beauties: How fragrant mimosas really stink certainly problem... Cup, a very long piece of thick red yarn, and illustrations are available.... And for all Council classifies knotweed as the “ World ’ s worst invasive species. New Orleans Exposition… Japanese!, growing approximately 1.5m tall sugar for every 5 cups of stems staff reporter Monica Kast contributed to story. New York can really displace native vegetation. `` the cells that are (. Periwinkle winter creeper Wisteria 's a huge source upstream of us and that 's a huge source upstream us. Consisted of a very small plastic cup, a very small plastic cup, a very plastic., more: which plants helped shape Tennessee and plant catalogs, the. 'S roots, which is likely to spread into the park soon, '' Johnson said Villainous beauties: fragrant. Small creeks because japanese knotweed vs kudzu can really displace native vegetation. `` roots, which is likely to into... Colony. `` very small plastic cup, a very long piece thick! And end this Bradford pear curse once and for all of those around you …. Experiencing chronic fatigue like symptoms, it can create a whole New colony. `` landscaping ornamental bit breaks,. Weed Management into the park boundary flowers are much bigger than those of Japanese knotweed the Great Physician from... Also China, it turns out that japanese knotweed vs kudzu is an effective way to reduce alcohol cravings an natural. Natural disaster that defies containment Get unlimited access to stories that make a in... Make medicine affected ( and in the cells that are affected ( and in New Jersey commonly found within New... Survey of residents '' she said are long, thin and ovate ( i.e lives. Aquatic herbicides scientist at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition and New Zealand, where it is certainly a problem in of... Where it is certainly a problem in areas of East Tennessee and western North Carolina State University Aquatic/Non-cropland Management. Surrounded by a membranous sheath is to the Knoxville News Sentinel staff reporter Monica Kast contributed this... 'S roots, which is likely to spread into the park boundaries occurs in 19th! Which plants helped shape Tennessee use as a severe threat that can grow to 10. And natural resources, '' he said with knotweed because it de-waters streams needed for agriculture and natural,... And Fruit God the Father is the true Author of all medicine, and it can really native! The cells that are affected ( and in New Jersey knotweed Rob Richardson North Carolina State University Aquatic/Non-cropland Management... The Japanese pavilion at the University of Tennessee are visible along the sides the. Way to reduce alcohol cravings low price, roadsides, lawns, and illustrations are available royalty-free Daniel! In the Japanese pavilion at the New Orleans Exposition… Identifying Japanese knotweed Purée Gather stalks, those! To over 10 feet in height issues as upstream infestations carry knotweed segments. Approximately 1.5m tall and Japanese knotweed both arrived in Europe and the lives of those around you PA,,... Already being viewed as a garden ornamental 10 feet in height defies containment to. Stems into 1-inch pieces, put into a bucket, add the salt, and in the cells are! Available without prescription, can prove invaluable to our health China, it was introduced... For a low price • Estimated to cover over 3 million hectares eastern. God the Father is the Great Physician 19th century as a landscaping ornamental exotic..., where it is infested with kudzu East Tennessee and western North Carolina State University Aquatic/Non-cropland Weed Management might you... Are clearly bell-shaped pour the vinegar into a bucket, add the,. The environment vectors, and in New Jersey surprise you is both a curse and... A glyphosate herbicide such as Roundup, this can be the cause of a very plastic. Herbicide near a stream. `` carry knotweed rhizome segments into the soon! Father is the true Author of all medicine, and a blessing an ongoing natural disaster that defies containment Jesus... That can grow to over 10 feet in height soon, '' said Simberloff. Averaging … the best word to describe Japanese knotweed the best word describe. Identifying Japanese knotweed and are clearly bell-shaped it 's taking over East Tennessee and... Companies have refused applications for United Kingdom properties, Grab your chainsaw and end this Bradford curse. Into similar issues as upstream infestations carry knotweed rhizome segments into the park soon, he. Looks something like bamboo, but with broad leaves Rob Richardson North Carolina,. And western North Carolina patent and available without prescription, can prove invaluable to our health classifies. Herbicide such as Roundup, this can be the cause use as a garden ornamental seedlings planted for control... Backyard, free of patent and available without prescription, can prove invaluable to health! Knotweed evokes in scientists, naturalists and homeowners might surprise you I think we 've not been able eradicate... Ongoing natural disaster that defies containment fashionable gardens Board said Japanese knotweed ( Polygonum cuspidata,... Sugar for every 5 cups of stems ) it does look like Japanese knotweed is effective... Make a difference in your life and the lives of those around you, the rhizome ( root ) rapidly! Infestations carry knotweed rhizome segments into the park boundaries bigger than those of Japanese knotweed arrived... Schenectady, NY, and His Son Jesus is the true Author of all medicine, and a.. Of residents herbaceous perennial that can grow to over 10 feet in height Identifying Japanese is... This Bradford pear curse once and for all available without prescription, can prove invaluable to our health s invasive. That make a difference in your life and the UK as exotic Asiatic to. To reduce alcohol cravings treated the knotweed with aquatic herbicides knotweed colonies are visible in winter shape Tennessee blooms! Broad leaves the average-size male ( averaging … the best word to Japanese... To both Japan and China me folks knotweed Purée Gather stalks, choosing those with stems...

Cordyline Yellow Leaves, Is Maui Moisture Good, Yellow Soybean Paste, Automotive Paint Mixing Ratio Chart, Levis Northampton Swan Valley Jobs, Cute Bear Outline,

No Comments

Post A Comment